Cell structure & function antibodies are used for investigating cell structure and function and include those linked to DNA damage & repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular structure, and trafficking. Cell structure and function antibodies can be used to connect structural features of the cell, such as the cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilament, to their function. Cell cycle antibodies are targeted against proteins involved in the steps of the cell cycle, including the interphase and mitotic phase. Proteins such as histone H3 Ser28 are modified as the cell carries out the cell cycle phases during mitosis. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, can be investigated using antibodies directed against proteins involved in the destruction of cells, such as caspases which are the major regulators of apoptosis. DNA damage and repair antibodies give insight into damage of DNA that disrupts gene expression and the processes involved in mending these damages.
In DNA repair processes, cells identify and mend damaged DNA and DNA damage and repair antibodies are able to identify proteins involved in these processes. These antibodies are useful to researchers studying diseases related to lesions made in the DNA because research shows that damaged DNA can prevent gene transcription and can form a malignant tumor if enough damage accumulates.