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DNA Replication & Transcription Antibodies

Transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression. They can include more than one DNA-binding domain and may operate alone or form homodimers and heterodimers. Transcription factor binding is accomplished through a combination of electrostatic and van der waals forces and can take place at several closely-related sequences neighboring different genes. After binding to DNA, these proteins can promote or inhibit RNA polymerase recruitment, thus are considered either activators or repressors. In addition, transcription factors can recruit coactivators and corepressors, or may catalyze histone acetylation and deacetylation. When triggered by environmental or biological stimuli, transcription factors can operate downstream of signaling cascades to alter the expression of target genes. Some transcription factors require ligand binding since this can cause nuclear translocation and variations in the binding affinities for DNA and cofactors. During development, a variety of stimuli can cause transcription factors to upregulate or downregulate gene expression at certain times to ensure proper growth. Transcription factor proteins can also act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and have linked to various cancers. Hence, therapeutic approaches in cancer therapy often involve targeting transcription factor families.
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