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Cell Structure & Function Antibodies

Cell structure & function antibodies are used for investigating cell structure and function and include those linked to DNA damage & repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular structure, and trafficking. Cell structure and function antibodies can be used to connect structural features of the cell, such as the cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilament, to their function. Cell cycle antibodies are targeted against proteins involved in the steps of the cell cycle, including the interphase and mitotic phase. Proteins such as histone H3 Ser28 are modified as the cell carries out the cell cycle phases during mitosis. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, can be investigated using antibodies directed against proteins involved in the destruction of cells, such as caspases which are the major regulators of apoptosis. DNA damage and repair antibodies give insight into damage of DNA that disrupts gene expression and the processes involved in mending these damages.
Cell Cycle Antibodies
The cell cycle constitutes a series of stages that allow a cell to double its cellular components and divide into two daughter cells. Cell cycle and division are crucial for development of a multicellular organism, as well as for cell-renewal in regenerating tissue. Actively proliferating cells undergo four phases during cell division or mitosis.

The phases of the cell cycle include G1 phase, S-phase, G2 phase and M phase. During the G1 phase, or the gap or growth phase, the cell intensifies transcription and protein synthesis to ensure availability of proteins necessary for DNA replication, and grows in size. During S-phase or the synthesis phase, DNA replication occurs and the DNA amount is doubled. During G2 phase, the cell contains double the amount of DNA and rapid growth and protein synthesis occurs, in order to increase organelle number in preparation for cell division. The G1 phase, S-phase, and G2 phase altogether constitute the interphase period, in which the cell prepares itself for the mitosis or cell division phase. During M or mitosis phase, cellular division into two daughter cells takes place. This process involves 2 stages, karyokinesis or mitosis, in which the cells’ nucleus divides; and cytokinesis, in which the cells cytoplasm divides.

During the cell cycle, there are several checkpoints, to ensure that the cell has completed a phase successfully prior to entering the next phase. The G1 checkpoint or restriction point occurs towards the end of the G1 phase, and the cell checks for DNA damage to ensure DNA integrity and also for proper size before proceeding to DNA replication. During the G2 checkpoint, the cell makes sure that the DNA is replicated accurately and that no DNA damage is present, prior to the mitotic phase. During M phase, the mitotic spindle checkpoint ensures that the chromosomes are well attached to the spindle prior to division. Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases are the main mediators of cell cycle progression, and they are expressed specifically during certain phases and control entry and exit from the particular phases.

DNA Damage & Repair Antibodies
Cells undergo DNA damage constantly from exogenous and endogenous sources. Some of these sources include UV-light, ionizing radiation, alkylating agents and other environmental DNA damaging agents, as well as other sources derived spontaneously from cellular metabolism, such as reactive oxygen species. DNA damaging agents can cause a number of DNA lesions, including adducts, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites), single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Left unrepaired, these DNA lesions could result in mutations, senescence, or induction of cell death which could lead to the development of neurodegeneration, cancer and other diseases.

In order to maintain genomic integrity, cells have developed the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway which allows cells to recognize the DNA damage and facilitate recruitment and activation of DNA repair proteins. Members of the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase like protein kinase (PIKK) family, such as ATM, ATR and DNA-PK, are involved in this response, as well as a few members of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family.

Several DNA repair pathways exist to correct the DNA lesions depending on the particular form of DNA damage. For instance, the base excision repair (BER) and the mismatch repair (MMR) pathways mend damaged or mispaired DNA bases by excising the damaged base or by replacing mispaired bases with correct ones. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) fixes DNA lesions such as intrastrand crosslinks by removing a larger oligonucleotide DNA fragment; while double-strand breaks are generally repaired by non-homology end-joining (NHEJ) or by homology-directed repair (HDR).

Apoptosis & Cell Death Antibodies
Programmed cell death is important for normal physiological functioning, it is crucial in wound healing, development, differentiation and immune responses. However, unregulated cell death can lead to development of several diseases. Several forms of cell death include apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, which differ mainly in the cells morphological changes that accompany them, as well as the proteins involved in their activation and execution.

Apoptosis is the best characterized cell death process and it is often accompanied by plasma membrane blebbing, shrinkage or decrease in cell volume, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. It usually involves activation of caspases, and is commonly divided into intrinsic or extrinsic pathways, depending on whether it is activated by the mitochondria with subsequent release of cytochrome C (intrinsic apoptotic pathway) or whether it is activated by death receptors (extrinsic apoptotic pathway). Besides the caspases, p53 is also known to be a major regulator of apoptosis.

Autophagy occurs with no chromatin condensation but involves vacuolization of the cytoplasm. It involves the retention of cytoplasmic material into autophagosomes for degradation by lysosomes. During autophagy, the autophagosomes fuse with the lysosomes to form autolysosomes, where the cytoplasmic content is then degraded by acidic hydrolases.

Necrosis, in contrast to apoptosis, is characterized by an increase in cell volume, and does not involve the activation of caspases. It involves swelling of organelles, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of intracellular components outside the cell. Necroptosis has been referred to as the programmed form of necrosis. All these forms of cell death can be activated independently of apoptosis, or if apoptosis fails. Other less known forms of cell death include pyroptosis, entosis, paraptosis, as well as others.

Cellular Structure Antibodies
Structural proteins are involved in maintenance of cellular structures and are crucial in cell polarity, cell to cell communication, movement and migration, cell division and other functions requiring cell malleability. Structural differences among cell types are crucial for cells to perform their specialized functional roles. Structural proteins are fibrous proteins, and include keratins, actin, collagens, and tubulins among others.

The cytoskeletal structure of the cell or cytoskeleton is composed of three types of filaments, microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. Microfilaments are composed of actin polymers that form thin, long fibers, and they contribute to muscular cell contraction and cellular locomotion. Intermediate filaments can be formed from diverse structural proteins, including keratins, lamins, and vimentins. Intermediate filaments composed of lamins are involved in maintenance of the nuclear envelope, while keratins constitute protective layers, such as skin, hair and nails. Microtubules are hollow cylinders formed from alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin subunits, and they participate in cellular activities requiring motion, such as organelle transport and chromosome segregation during cell division. Cadherins, catenins, claudins, and connexins, as well as other structural proteins participate in formation of cellular junctions, including gap junctions, tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, which are essential for cell to cell attachment and communication. Motor proteins, such as myosin, kinesins, and dyneins facilitate the movement of organelles along the cells cytoskeletal structure.

Trafficking Antibodies
Cells must transport proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, where they are mostly synthesized, to the nucleus, plasma membrane or other sites where they will ultimately perform their functions, and they should recycle back membrane and extracellular components. Intracellular trafficking involves two major pathways, the exocytic pathway, which transports components from the inside to the outside of the cell, and the endocytic pathway which transports material from the outside to the inside of the cell. Integral membrane proteins and secreted proteins are transported to the cell surface via the exocytic pathway, in which they are carried from the endoplasmic reticulum, to the Golgi apparatus and through secretory vesicles which then fuse with the plasma membrane. On the other hand, some cell surface receptors, after activation and signaling, undergo endocytosis and transport to lysosomes for their degradation, in a series of vesicular bodies called endosomes.

Certain proteins, such as chaperones aid in the folding and stability of a protein during synthesis, and often escort proteins to their final destination. Some are called heat shock proteins, as they protect proteins from unfolding and aggregation during stress responses, including elevated temperatures. Proteins that are required to perform their function in the nucleus are transported through nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear membrane. Shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm or nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, involves specialized proteins called importins and exportins, which bind the proteins or RNA molecules to be transported through nuclear localization signals or nuclear export signals within their sequence. Some hormones, ions and other molecules in the extracellular space or in the circulation are transported also by cargo or transporter proteins. Hemoglobin and ferritin are examples of such proteins, which bind and transport oxygen and iron, respectively. Certain ion channels and pumps also facilitate the active transport of ions across cell membranes.

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Image Description Cat. No. Size Price
8-Hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG) Polyclonal Antibody
8-Hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG) Polyclonal Antibody

Application: ELISA, IH
Areas of Research: DNA Damage & Repair
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Goat
Isotype: IgG
Purification: Serum
Reactivity: Broad Range
A-6300-10.1 ml $421.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
A20 Monoclonal Antibody [8E8.38]
A20 Monoclonal Antibody [8E8.38]

Areas of Research: Cell Cycle
Clonality: Monoclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Mouse
Isotype: IgG1
A-0536-05050 µg $462.00 Discontinued
Antibodies
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody

Application: ELISA, IF
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A66090-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A66090-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Biotin
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A66093-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A66093-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: FITC
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A66092-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A66092-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated
ABCA9 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: HRP
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A66091-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A66091-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB1 Monoclonal Antibody [1F11]
ABCB1 Monoclonal Antibody [1F11]

Citations (1)
Application: ELISA, WB
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Monoclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Mouse
Isotype: IgG1 Kappa
Purification: Affinity Purified
Reactivity: Human
A-6195-100100 µg $452.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody

Application: ELISA, IF, IHC, WB
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A52229-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52229-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Biotin
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A52226-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52226-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: FITC
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A52227-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52227-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated
ABCB1 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: HRP
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A52228-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52228-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Mouse
A52844-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52844-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Biotin
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Mouse
A52841-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52841-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: FITC
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Mouse
A52842-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52842-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated
Abcb4 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: HRP
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Mouse
A52843-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A52843-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody

Application: ELISA, IF, IHC
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A57930-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A57930-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: Biotin
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A57931-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A57931-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: FITC
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A57932-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A57932-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated
ABCB5 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated

Application: ELISA
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Polyclonal
Conjugate: HRP
Host: Rabbit
Isotype: IgG
Purification: >95%, Protein G Purified
Reactivity: Human
A57933-05050 µg $249.00 Add to Cart
A57933-100100 µg $349.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
ABCF2 Monoclonal Antibody [1D11]
ABCF2 Monoclonal Antibody [1D11]

Application: ELISA, IHC, WB
Areas of Research: Cell Trafficking
Clonality: Monoclonal
Conjugate: Unconjugated
Host: Mouse
Isotype: IgG2a Kappa
Purification: Affinity Purified
Reactivity: Human
A-2132-100100 µg $452.00 Add to Cart
Antibodies
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